Administrative Changes After 1857
1. Changes After 1857
- Emergence of new Colonial Powers (The USA, Japan & European Countries).
- British Supremacy in world economy challenged.
- Large-scale capital investment in India (Railways, Tea plantations, Coal-mining, Jute mills etc.)
2. Changes in Government at the Centre
- The Crown assumed the power to govern– to be exercised through a secretary of state. (Act for Better Government of India, 1858; ICA, 1861)
- Indians could be associated with legislative process in Indian Legislative Council, which had very limited power.
3. Changes in Provincial Administration
- Process of financial & administrative devolution initiated in 1870.
- Lord Mayo bifurcated Central & Provincial finances (Mayo’s Resolution of 1879).
- Lord Lytton transferred land revenue, excise, general administration and Law & Justice to Provinces in 1877.
- Half-hearted & inadequate measures introduced (aimed at increasing revenue only).
4. Changes in Local Bodies
- A process of decentralisation initiated in 1860s(ICA, 1861).
- Mayo’s Resolution of 1870 (bifurcating Central & Provincial finances).
- Ripon’s Resolution of 1882
- Policy of administering local affairs through Urban & Rural Local bodies.
- ULBs & RLBs charged with definite duties & entrusted with suitable sources of revenue.
- Non-officials to act as chairpersons to these bodies.
- Royal Commission on Decentralisation (1908).
- Under Dyarchy, Local Self-Government was made a “transferred” subject by GoI Act, 1919.
- Article 40 of Indian Constitution.
- The 73th CAA & 74th CAA. (Ryotwari by Munro)
5. Changes in the Army
- Supremacy of European branch ensured.
- Indian branch to be reorganised on the basis of balance & counterpoise.
- Indians to be excluded from important & strategic locations & branches.
- Army to be used to promote commercial interests of Great Britain.
6. Public Services
- Very tough for Indians to enter in it.
- Indians subordinated to British authority.
7. Administrative Policies
- Divide and Rule
- Hostility to Educated Indians (Demanded Indian participation in Administration).
- Zamindars & Landlords propped as counterweights to the nationalists.
- Reversal of policy of support to social reforms.
- Social services ignored.
- Half-hearted & inadequate labour legislations introduced (Indian Factory Act, 1881 & 1891.
- Restrictions on the freedom of Press.
- Racial arrogance.
8. Foreign Policy
- Guided by interest of British imperialism (Often led to India’s conflicts with neighbouring countries).
- Keep other European powers at an arm’s length.
- Promote British economic & commercial interests.
Economic Impact of British Rule in India
1. Economic Impact of British Rule
A] Deindustrialisation– Ruin of Artisans & Handicrafts Men
- One-Way Free Trade (flooded the Indian market after the Charter Act of 1813).
- No Steps towards Modern Industrialisation.
- Ruralisation (decline of many cities).
B] Impoverishment of Peasantry
- Only interested in maximisation of rents & in securing its share of revenue.
C] Emergence of New Land Relations – Ruin of Old Zamindars.
D] Stagnation & Deterioration of Agriculture
E] Commercialisation of Indian Agriculture
F] Late Development of Modern Industry.
G] Rise of Indian national bourgeoisie
H] Economic Drain (The Poverty and UnBritish Rule in India)
I] Famine and Poverty
2. Nationalist Critique
- India getting poorer due to colonial exploitation.
- Problem of Poverty- A national problem of raising productive capacities & energy.
- Development equated with Industrialisation, which should take place through Indian, not foreign capital.
- Mostly British policies designed to serve imperialist interests.
Development Of Indian Press
James Augustus Hickey(1780) started The Bengal Gazette (or Calcutta General Advertiser) => 1st Newspaper in India.
1) Early Regulations
- Censorship of Press Act, 1799
- Enacted by Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)
- Relaxed under Lord Hastings (1813-1823)
- Licensing Regulations, 1823
- Rammohan Roy’s Mirat-ul-Akbar had to stop publication.
- Metcalfe Act (Press Act of 1835)
- Repealed the obnoxious 1823 ordinance.
- Called “Liberator of the Indian Press”
- Licensing Act, 1857
- Due to the emergency caused by 1857 revolt licensing restriction was imposed.
- Registration Act, 1867
- Replaced Metcalfe Act of 1835.
- Regulatory, not restrictive nature.
2) Vernacular Press Act, 1878
- Designed to ‘better control’ the vernacular press and effectively punish & repress seditious writing.
- District Magistrate’s action was final & no appeal could be made in a court of law.
- Nicknamed as “The Gagging Act”.
- Discrimination between English & Vernacular press,
- No Right of appeal.
(Incidentally, the Amrita Bazar Patrika turned overnight into an English Newspaper)
- In 1883, Surendranath Banerjee became the 1st Indian journalist to be imprisoned (The Bengalee).
- Tilak was arrested after the murder of Rand(murdered by Chapekar Brothers) on the basis of the publication of a poem “Shivaji’s Utterances”.
3) Newspaper (Incitement to Offences) Act, 1908
- Aimed against Extremist nationalist activity.
- Act empowered Magistrate to confiscate press property.
4) During & After WW-1
-> Defence of India Rules imposed for
- Repression of Political agitation.
- Free Public Criticism during WW-1.
-> Indian Press (Emergency Powers) Act, 1931
- Gave sweeping powers to provincial govt to suppress propaganda for CDM.
5) After Independence
- Press Enquiry Committee, 1947
- Press (Objectionable Matters) Act, 1951
- Press Commission under Justice Rajadhyaksha.
Development Of Education
1) Under Company Rule
- Calcutta Madrasa– by Warren Hastings in 1781.
- Sanskrit College– by Jonathan Duncan in 1791 for study of Hindu law & Philosophy, to help Britishers.
- William College– by Wellesley in 1800 for training of Civil Servants. (Closed in 1802).
- Charter Act of 1813 Act directed Company to sanctioned Rs. 1 lakh annually.
=> Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy
Anglicists = education should be exclusively for Modern Studies.
Orientalists = emphasis should be on expansion of traditional Indian learning apart from Western Science & Literature.
-> Lord Macaulay’s Minute (1835) settled the row in favour of Anglicists.
-> Teaching of Western Sciences & Literature through English Medium alone.
-> Lord Macaulay says” Indian learning was inferior to European learning.”
-> Downward Filtration Theory– “Indian in blood & colour but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect”.
=> Wood’s Despatch (1854)
- Considered “Magna Carta of English Education in India”.
- GoI should assume responsibility for education of masses.
- Recommended English medium for Higher studies & Vernacular for School level.
- Laid stress on female & vocational education, and on teachers’ training.
- Secular education.
- Recommended a system of grant-in-aid to encourage private enterprise.
Bethune School at Calcutta(1849)= 1st movement for Education of Women.
2) After Crown Took Over
A. Hunter Commission (1882-83)
- To review the progress of Education in the country since Wood’s Despatch of 1854.
- Confined its recommendations to Primary & Secondary education.
- Transfer of control of primary education to District & Municipal Boards.
- Encouraged women education.
- Primary Education through Vernacular languages.
- Suggested 2 channels- Literary Education & Vocational career.
- Encouraged Private participation.
B. Raleigh University Commission (1902)
- For improvement of universities condition & working.
C. Saddler University Commision (1917-19)
D. Education Under Dyarchy (1919)
- Education was shifted to Provinces.
E. Hartog Committee (1929)
F. Sergeant Plan of Education (1944)
- Free, Universal & Compulsory Elementary Education for 6-11 yrs age group.
3) Wardha Scheme of Education
- Based on Gandhian Principles(After an article published in Harijan).
- Formulated by Zakir Hussain Committee.
- Free & Compulsory Education to be provided for 7 yrs in regional language.(No Place for English)
- Included Handicraft as a part of syllabus.
4) Education After Independence
- Radhakrishnan University Commission (1948-49)
- Kothari Commission (Based on this National Policy was announced in 1968)
- Free, Universal & Compulsory Education upto the age of 14.
- 3 Language formula– Mother tongue, Hindi & English.
- Investment of 6% of GDP on Education.
1976: Education placed in Concurrent List
2002: Free & Compulsory Education of 6 to 14yrs made a FR.
- Lord Curzon estd an Agriculture College at Pusa.
- The British wanted to use Modern Education to strengthen the foundation of their political authority in India.