GS-1 (Mains), Mains-2018 (English)

The Iranian Revolution and its effect


The Iranian Revolution (aka Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution) refers to events involving the overthrow of the Pahlavi dynasty under Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who was supported by the United States, and eventual replacement of 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy with an Islamic Republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution, supported by various Islamist and leftist organizations and student movements.


Effect of Iranian Revolution:

(i) After the system of despotic monarchy had been overthrown, the economy and the apparatus of government had collapsed, military and security forces were in disarray.

(ii) Society:

-> The Islamic Revolution of 1978-1979 brought a one hundred percent reversal in the trend of secularization which the country was experiencing. In fact, Islam became the official new state ideology of the clerical fundamentalist elites.

-> Such a clear emphasis on Islam as the centre of governance has profound effects on Iran’s societal fabric. The 1979 Islamic Constitution resulted in a shift of the legal system from a secular to religious orientation.

(iii) Extra and Quasi Judicial Activity:

-> From 1979 to 1994 more than one thousand women have been stoned to death in Iran. This is just one example of the extra-or quasi-judicial activity taking place in the legal process.

-> In fact, when the new government achieved power, women were once again subjugated and restricted to the confines of their homes. In every aspect of their lives, women were discriminated against.

(iv) Polity:

-> The Constitution provides political legitimacy to “God” and the divine law given in the Koran.

-> What began as an authentic and anti-dictatorial popular revolution based on a broad coalition of all anti-Shah forces was soon transformed into an Islamic fundamentalist power-grab.

(v) Marriage:

-> Men can legally have affairs through the institution of sigheh or temporary marriage.

-> Men can obtain a unilateral divorce from their wife or wives.

-> The marriage age for females has been lowered to nine and in some instances to seven.

(vi) The reproductive policies of the new regime declared contraception and any from of family planning as being against Islam.

(vii) Mothers no longer have equal rights in terms of child custody.

(viii) The religious edicts of the mullahs are enforced by an armed moral police who arbitrarily stop couples in the streets to make sure that no immoral act is taking place.



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