Modern History, Prelims Booster

(MH/5) Modern History – Quick Revision Series Part-5 (Special)

Modern History

1. Important Institutions & their founders

  • Adi Brahmo Samaj= Debendranath Tagore.
  • Theosophical Society= HP Blavatsky, Colonel HS Olcott, William Quan judge.
  • Prarthana Samaj= Atmaram Pandurang.
  • Servants of the People Society= Lala Lajpat Rai. (Rai was associated with activities of Punjab National Bank (PNB) & Lakshmi Insurance Company).
  • Congress Socialist Party= Acharya Narendra Dev & JP Narayan (1934)
  • All India Kisan Sabha= Swami Sahajanand Saraswati


2. Newspapers, Books & Institutions

  • Gandhiji = Indian Opinion, Young India, Harijan
  • Bipin Chandra Pal & Sri Aurobindo = The Bande Mataram
  • Devendranath Tagore = Indian Mirror (In English-1862)
  • Lala Lajpat Rai = Young India, editor of Arya Gazette
  • Tilak = Geeta Rahasya, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, The Orion
  • I.C. Vidyasagar = Shome Prakash
  • Raja Rammohan Roy= The Precepts of Jesus, Tuhfat’ ul muhwahhiddin, Samvad Kaumudi.
  • Dadabhai Naoroji= Gyan Prasarak Mandali, Bombay Association


3. Social Movements & Personalities

  • Seva Sadan = founded by Behramji Malabari in 1885.
      • Specialised in the care of socially discarded & exploited women of all castes.
  • Social Service League = N.M Joshi
  • Arya Mahila Samaj = Pandita Ramabai
  • Sanyasi Movement = Manju Shah Fakir
  • Ramosi Movement = Chittur Singh
  • Pagal Panthis = Karam Shah & his son Tipu Shah (Mixture of Hinduism + Sufism + Animism; To uphold the religion & rights of peasants in Bengal)
  • Faraizi Movement = Haji Shariatullah (Fard means Compulsory & mandatory duties ordained by allah)


4. Individual Satyagraha launched to show the dissatisfaction to the August Offer.

  • 1st- Vinoba Bhave & 2nd- JL Nehru


5. Rajagopalachari Formula Suggested Plebiscite to solve the political deadlock between the All India Muslim League and the INC on the independence of India from the British.

6. Wardha Scheme of Education

  • Based on Gandhian Principles (After an article published in Harijan).
  • Formulated by Zakir Hussain Committee.
  • Free & Compulsory Education to be provided for 7 yrs in regional language. (No Place for English)
  • Included Handicraft as a part of syllabus.


7. Karachi Session of Congress 1931– Presided by Sardar Patel

  • Basic Civil Rights
  • Equality Before Law
  • Protection of Minorities
  • Free & Compulsory Primary Education
  • Universal Adult Franchise based election.


8. Lord Lytton (1876-80) associated with

  • Great Famine of India, 1876
  • Queen Victoria’s Proclamation (Queen Adorned with Kaiser-i-Hind title)
  • Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-80)
  • Aligarh college founded (1877)
  • Vernacular Press Act (Repealed by Lord Ripon), Arms Act (1878)
  • Reduction of age in Civil Services (18yr)


9. Morley Minto Act, 1909

  • Permitted to introduce resolutions & Power to ask questions.
  • Voting on separate Budget items was allowed.
  • Separate electorate for Muslims.


10. Conspiracy Cases

  • Hindu-German Conspiracy (1914-17/San Francisco) Gadar Party, Indian Independence Committee.
  • Kanpur Bolshevik case (1924) against newbie Communists (CPI)
  • Lahore Conspiracy (Oct 1928) Anti-Simon Commission demonstration led by Lala Lajpat Rai & died. (HSRA decided to kill Scott but killed Saunders. Bhagat Singh, Bhagwati Charan Vohra)
  • Meerut Conspiracy (Mar 1929) Several trade unions including 3 Englishmen arrested for organizing an Indian Railway strike. (Communists- Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Muzaffar Ahmed)


11. Events happened during the reign of  Lord Dalhousie

  • 2nd Anglo Burmese war
  • Wood’s Despatch
  • Widow Remarriage Act
  • Introduction of Telegraph


12. Raja Rammohan Roy

  • He demanded judicial equality between Indians & Europeans and that trial be held by jury.
  • He well understood the significance of modern age (Liberty, Equality & Justice).
  • He condemned oppressive practices of Bengali Zamindars & demanded fixation of maximum rents.


13. Jyotiba Phule

  • His movement was against Brahminical Supremacy.
  • Used the Symbol of Raja Bali as against the symbol of Rama.
  • His Sarvajanik Satyadharma & Gulamgiri became sources of inspiration for the common masses.


14. Sequence of Events from 1900 to 1947

  1. Individual Satyagraha: October 1940
  2. August Offer: August 1940
  3. Congress ministries resigned: 1939
  4. Cripps Mission: March 1942


15. History of Rupee

  • Ancient India was the earlier issuer of coins in the world, along with Chinese Wen and Lydian Staters.
  • Arthashastra mentions Silver coins as Rupyarupa [other type including
    1. Gold coins (Suvarnarupa),
    2. Copper coins (Tamararupa) &
    3. Lead coins (Sisarupa)]
  • The first Rupee”(Silver Coin) is believed to have been introduced by Sher Shah Suri.
  • Paper money in the form of a 10-rupee note was first issued by the Bank of Hindustan.
  • Up to 1835, each of the three presidencies of the BEIC (Bengal, Bombay and Madras) issued their own coinage. [Coinage Act of 1835 – Uniform Coinage throughout India].
  • The Coins issued after 1840 bore the portrait of Queen Victoria.
  • The 1911 accession to the throne of Emperor George V led to the famous “Pig Rupee” (Elephant appeared like Pig in small coin).


16. Important Battles fought

  • Battle of Buxar- Mir Qasim vs Munro
  • Battle of Chilianwala- Dalhousie vs Sikh
  • Battle of Kharda- Nizam vs Peshwa Madhavrao II
  • Battle of Wandiwash- French vs BEIC


17. Newspapers advocated Revolutionary terrorism

  • The Sandhya & Yugantar (Bengal)
  • The Kal (Maharashtra)


18. Amir Khusrau

  • A mystic & spiritual disciple of Nizamuddin Aulia of Delhi.
  • Invented Tabla, Sitar and Khayal & Tarana style of music.
  • Regarded as Father of Qawwali.
  • Introduced Ghazal style of song into India.

[First appearance of Thumri go back to 19th century, this has link with classical dance from Kathak]


19. Socio-Economic Condition of 18th century

  • Dowry system among Upper Caste only.
  • Polygamy among Aristocratic class.


20. Administrative Decentralization

  • Act of 1861 beginning in the direction of decentralisation.
    1. Provided legislative powers to the presidencies of Bombay & Madras.
    2. But they had to obtain permission form GG for passing an act.
    3. Beginning of Representative institutions in India by associating Indians with law making procedure.
  • Lord Mayo in 1870, first time granted fixed sums to provinces to spend it as they wish on Police, Jails, Education, Medical Services etc.
  • More financial independence was given by Lord Lytton in 1877.
  • By 1882, System fixed grants to the provinces was put to an end.


21. First Factory Act (1881)

  • Lord Rippon to improve service condition of workers.
  • Banned appointment of children below 7 yrs & reduced the working hours for children.
  • Made compulsory for all dangerous machines to be fenced properly to ensure security


22. Demands of moderates

  • Abolition of Indian Council.
  • Democratic Rights only for educated members of Indian Society.
  • Limited Self-government within Imperial framework.


23. Islamic Reform Movements

(i) Anjuman-i-Himayat-i-Islam (1866)

  • Muhammad Safi & Shah Din, followers of Syed Ahmad Khan.
  • Opened Schools imparting Western Education.
  • Emphasized female Education, loyalty to the British Govt
  • Opposed the INC.

(ii) Aligarh Movement

  • Launched by Syed Ahmad Khan (in Judicial service during 1857 revolt & stood loyal to British govt)- Religious interpreter, social reformer & Educationist.
  • Emphasised Western Education & British support.
  • Prevented Muslims from joining the Congress.

(iii) Deoband Movement (1867)

(Aim– Moral & Religious regeneration of Muslims)

  • Orthodox with twin objectives-
    1. Propagating pure teachings of the Quran & Hadis among Muslims.
    2. Keeping alive the spirit of Jihad against the foreign rulers.
  • Cooperated with Congress.
  • Emphasised Hindu-Muslim Unity.
  • Issued Fatiua (religious decree) against Aligarh movement.


24. Public Safety Act & Trade Disputes Act enacted post coming of Simon Commission were designed to further control the workers.


25. Gandhi’s Principle of Trusteeship

  • No one but only the Supreme God owns all, including the industries.


26. Gurudwara Reform

  • Before 1920, Gurudwaras governed by Udasi Sikh Mahants.
  • Issued Hukamnama(injunction) against Ghadarites.
  • Control was to be taken from the govt and handling to the local devotees.
  • Became a movement very connected to the NCM.

Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) resolution formed after Nankana Tragedy in 1921

  1. Substitution of Panchayats for the British court of law.
  2. Boycott of foreign goods & intoxicating liquor.


27. Temple Entry Movement

  • Objective was to give untouchables access to all Hindu temples in India.
  • Succeeded in both North & South(First success was in Princely state of Travancore).

Note: This is special Revision series and can be used to revise most important facts associated with Modern History.


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